Amendments

THE FOLLOWING is a simple-english list of Constitutional Amendments 11-27, as they were added to the Constitution after its adoption. The Bill of Rights contains 1-10. All can easily be studied and translated in 180 world languages. A transcript of the original Amendments can be found online at The UM Human Rights Library.

This website is an open source compilation of America’s founding documents. We intend to improve these amendments, via patches, to make this document a more bulletproof guarantee of freedom. Improvements are based on 250 years of resilience testing. To contribute patches, please email us.

AMENDMENT  XI 

Limiting Law Cases Against States

Each State has sovereign immunity from being sued in federal court by citizens of another state or by citizens or subjects for any foreign state. 

AMENDMENT  XII

Election of the President and Vice President

The electors for each state are to meet in their respective states and cast one vote for a candidate for President and one vote for a candidate for Vice President. An elector may vote for one or the other, but not both, of two candidates that reside in the same state as the electors. 

The electors shall make a record of all persons voted for as president and all persons voted for as vice-president and of the number of votes for each. They shall sign and certify and seal the records and transmit them to the President of the Senate at the seat of the U.S. Government (Washington, DC). The President of the Senate is to open all the certificates and the votes are to be counted in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives. 

The person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President but that number of votes must be a majority of all the electors. If no person has a majority, the house of Representatives is to chose the president immediately, by ballot, from among the three candidates having the highest numbers of votes. 

The vote of the house of representatives is to be taken by states with each state having one vote. Representation for two-thirds of the states shall be considered a quorum and a majority of all states is required for a decision. 

If these conditions are not met and no president is chosen before March 4th following, then the vice president shall  act as president is in a constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes for Vice-President shall be the Vice-President if the number of votes is a majority of all the . If no person has a majority Senate is to chose the Vice-president from among the two candidates having the highest numbers of votes. A quorum consisting of two-thirds of the total number of Senators and a majority vote is required for a decision.

No person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be Vice-President.  

AMENDMENT XIII

Slavery is Outlawed

There shall be no slavery or involuntary servitude (except imprisonment for criminal conviction) in the United States or anyplace subject to U.S. jurisdiction. Congress has the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

AMENDMENT  XIV

Rights of Citizens

Section 1: Citizenship.   Everyone born or naturalized in the United States or in any place subject to U.S. jurisdiction are citizens of the United States and of the State in which they reside. No State may make any law to alter the privileges or immunities of any citizen of the United States.

No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law. 

No state shall deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2: Representation in Congress.   Neither Indians, (Native Americans), not taxed, nor any male citizens, 21 years of age or older whose federal or state voting rights have been denied or restricted for any reason, other than participation in rebellion or other crime, may be included in the basis population for the purpose of determining the number of representatives allotted to the state.

Section 3 Penalties for Confederate Leaders.   Any person who has taken an oath of office to support the Constitution of the United States and has violated that oath through insurrection or rebellion against the United States or given aid or comfort to the enemies of the United States, may not become a Senator or Representative in Congress, elector of President or vice President or hold any office, civil or military, under the united states or under any state. The Congress may remove such disability only by a 2/3 vote in each house.

Section 4 Responsibility of Public Debt.   The validity of public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts for payment of pensions, bounties and services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion shall not be questioned. 

But, claims against the United States or any State for debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or for the loss or emancipation of any slave shall be held illegal and void. 

AMENDMENT XV

African-American Voting Rights

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

AMENDMENT XVI

Income Tax

Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes from any source without regard for apportionment among the several states or any census enumeration. 

AMENDMENT XVII

Direct Election of Senators

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of 2 senators from each state and shall be elected by the people of their respective state. Each Senator shall have one vote.

Electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

If an elected Senator from any State is unable to complete his term the State shall hold elections to fill the vacancy. However, the State Legislature may empower the Executive of the state to make temporary appointments until the seat is filled by election as directed by the Legislature.

AMENDMENT XVIII

Prohibition

The 18th amendment is the prohibition amendment and was repealed Dec. 5, 1933.

AMENDMENT XIX

Women’s Suffrage

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex. Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

AMENDMENT XX

Terms of Office

Section 1: Starting Time   The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th of January. The terms of Senators and Representatives shall end at noon on the 3rd of January. The terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2: Meeting Time.   The congress shall assemble at least once every year at noon on the 3rd day of January unless they by law appoint a different day.

Section 3: Successor to President Elect.   If a President-elect dies before assuming office the Vice-President-elect shall become President. 

If a President is not chosen before the intended beginning day of his term, or if the President-elect fails to qualify for the office, the Vice-President-elect shall act as president until a President has qualified.

Section 4: Election by Congress.  In the event neither the President elect nor the Vice-President elect qualifies for office the Congress may, by law, declare who shall act as president or prescribe the manner in which a president is selected. The person so appointed shall preside as president until a qualified President of Vice-President is determined. 

AMENDMENT XXI

Repeal Prohibition

Section 1.   The 18th Amendment (prohibition) is repealed

Section 2.   Transportation of intoxicating liquors into any state, territory or possession of the United States in violation of the laws thereof is prohibited.

Section 3.   This article will become effective only after ratification by conventions in the several states as provided in the Constitution within 7 years its submission to the States by the Congress. 

AMENDMENT XXII

President Limited to 2 Terms

No person shall be elected to the office of president more than twice. No person who has held the office of president or acted as president for more than two years of the term of an elected President shall be elected to the presidency more than once.

This article does not prevent anyone serving as president or acting president at the time this article becomes operative from completing his term of office.

AMENDMENT XXIII

Voting for District of Columbia

The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint, as Congress may direct, a number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the number of senators and representatives it would have if it were a State, but no more than that of the least populous state. They shall be considered for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President to be electors appointed by a State. They shall meet in the District according to the provisions of the 12th amendment.

AMENDMENT XXIV

Poll Tax Ended

The right of citizens to vote in primary or other elections for President, Vice-President, Senator or Representative in Congress shall not be denied or abridged by the U.S. or any State for failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

AMENDMENT XXV

Presidential Succession

Section 1: Filling vacant office of President.   In case of the removal of the President from office by his death or resignation the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2: Filling vacant office of Vice President.  Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President to be confirmed by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3: Disability of President.  Whenever the President notifies the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he notifies them in writing to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be performed by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4: Congress Designates as Acting President.  If the Vice President and a majority of Presidential Cabinet officers, or other such body as congress may designate by law, find the President unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office and transmit that finding in writing to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

When, thereafter, the President submits, in writing, to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

If the Vice President and a majority of Presidential Cabinet officers, or other such body as congress may designate by law re-submit to congress, within four days, their finding of inability of the President then Congress shall decide the issue, and Congress shall assemble within forty-eight hours for that purpose, if not in session.

If, within 21 days of receiving the written declaration or within 21 days after receiving the declaration the Congress determines by two-thirds vote of both houses that the President is unable to discharge his duties, the Vice-President shall continue as Acting President. If Congress does not so find, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. 

AMENDMENT XXVI

Voting Age

The right of citizens of the U.S. who are 18 years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the U.S. or any state on account of age.The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

AMENDMENT XXVII

Limits on Salary Changes

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.